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Cochlear Implants

  • Effect of Scala Tympani Height on Insertion Depth of Straight Cochlear Implant Electrodes. William G. Morrel, Jourdan T. Holder, Benoit M. Dawant, Jack H. Noble, and Robert F. Labadie. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery 2020, Vol. 162(5) 718–724, DOI: 10.1177/0194599820904941.
  • Cost-Effectiveness of Intraoperative CT Scanning in Cochlear Implantation in Fee-for-Service and Bundled Payment Models. Labadie R., MItchell, Margaret B. Ear Nose Throat Journal. 2020 Aug 31;145561320952192. doi: 10.1177/0145561320952192.
  • Use of intraoperative CT scanning for quality control assessment of cochlear implant electrode array placement*, Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 140:3, 206-211, DOI: 10.1080/00016489.2019.1698768. Robert F. Labadie, Antonio D. Schefano, Jourdan T. Holder, Robert T. Dwyer, Alejandro Rivas, Matthew R. O’Malley, Jack H. Noble & Benoit M. Dawant (2020)
  • Automatic pre- to intra-operative CT registration for image-guided cochlear implant surgery. Fitsum A. Reda, Jack H. Noble, Robert F. Labadie, and Benoit M. Dawant, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. (2012)
  • Cochlear implant electrode array insertion monitoring with intra-operative 3D rotational X-ray. Carelsen, B., Grolman, W., Tange, R., Streekstra, G.J., van Kemenade, P., Jansen, R.J., Freling, N.J.M., White, M.,P Maat, B., & Fokkens, W.J. (2006)
  • Evaluation of portable CT scanners for otological image-guided surgery. Balachandran et al. Int J Computer Assisted RadiolSurg (2012)
  • Flat-panel CT vs multislice CT to evaluate cochlear implant positioning. Zeitler DM et al. Cochlear implants International (2011)
  • Minimally invasive image-guided cochlear implantation surgery: first report of clinical implementation. Labadie R, Balachandran R, Noble JH, Blachon GS, Mitchell JE, Reda FA, Dawant BM, Fitzpatrick JM. (2014)
  • Real-Time Intraoperative Computed Tomography to Assist Cochlear Implant Placement in the Malformed Inner Ear. Jason D. Bloom, Mark D. Rizzi, and John A. Germiller. (2008)
  • Xoran xCAT User Manual. Xoran Technologies LLC. (2017)


  • Clinical indication for intraoperative 3D imaging during open reduction of fractures of the neck and head of the mandibular condyle. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 39, Issue 4, June 2011, Pages 244-248 J. Klatt, M. Heiland, M. Blessmann, F. Blake, R. Schmelzle, P. Pohlenz
  • Clinical indications and perspectives for intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology, Volume 103, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 412-417 Philipp Pohlenz, Marco Blessmann, Felix Blake, Sven Heinrich, Rainer Schmelzle, Max Heiland
  • Intraoperative imaging for the repair of zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures: A comprehensive review of the literature. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 42, Issue 8, December 2014, Pages 1918-1923 Wouter M.M.T. van Hout, Ellen M. Van Cann, Marvick S.M. Muradin, Michaël H. Frank, Ronald Koole
  • Impact of intraoperative cone beam computed tomography in the management of zygomatic fractures. J Stomatol. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Nov 25;S2468-7855(20)30290-1.

The following supporting documents state the use of CT in the evaluation, diagnosis and execution of procedures.

Diagnoses of CRS

  • Diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography in the evaluation of chronic rhinosinusitis.
    Zojaji R, Naghibzadeh M, Mazloum Farsi Baf M, Nekooei S, Bataghva B, Noorbakhsh S. Journal ofOtorhinolaryngology. 2015;77(1):55-60
  • Flat panel cone beam computed tomography of the sinuses. Richard A. Zoumalan, MD, Richard A. Lebowitz, MD, Edwin Wang, MD, Kathryn Yung, MD, James S. Babb, PhD, and Joseph B. Jacobs, MD. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery(2009) 140, 841-844

Balloon Sinuplasty

Image-Guided Surgery

  • The use of portable intraoperative computed tomography scanning for real-time image guidance: A pilot cadaver study. Das S, Maeso PA, Figueroa RE, Senior BA, Delgaudio JM, Sillers MJ, Schlosser RJ, Kountakis SE.  American Journal of Rhinology. 2008 Mar-Apr;22(2):166-9.
  • Combined image guidance and intraoperative computed tomography in facilitating endoscopic orientation within and around the paranasal sinuses. Wise SK, Harvey RJ, Goddard JC, Sheahan PO, Schlosser RJ. American Journal of Rhinology. 2008 Nov-Dec;22(6):635-41


  • Use of intraoperative CT scanning in endoscopic sinus surgery: A preliminary report Jackman, Alexis H.1; Palmer, James N.1; Chiu, Alexander G.1; Kennedy, David. American Journal of Rhinology, Volume 22, Number 2, March/April 2008 , pp.170-174(5)

Nasal Obstruction

  • Real-time computed tomography image update for endoscopic skull base surgery
    B Awoodworth, A G Chiu, N A Cohen, D W Kennedy, B W O’Malley Jr, J N Palmer.
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology.(2008), 122, 361–365.

Sinus Surgery

  • Intraoperative IGS/CT Updates for Complex Endoscopic Frontal Sinus Surgery.
    Chennupati SK, Woodworth BA, Palmer JN, Cohen NA, Kennedy DW, Chiu AG
    Division of Rhinology, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania. May 19, 2008.

Nasal Turbinate Surgery

  • Computed Tomography measurement of Inferior Turbinate in Asymptomatic Adult.
    Mohammad Waheed El-Anwar, Atef A. Hamed, Ghada AbdulmonaemIsmail Elnashar, and Inas M. Elfiki. International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology. 2017 Oct; 21(4): 366–370

Abnormal Nasal Endoscopy

  • Technical feasibility of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation: Assessment with intraoperative CT imaging.
    C Arturo Solares, M.D., Amber Luong, M.D., Ph.D., and Pete S. Batra, M.D.
    American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy. 2009 Nov-Dec;23(6):619-21

Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

  • Use of intraoperative CT scanning in endoscopic sinus surgery: A preliminary report Jackman, Alexis H.1; Palmer, James N.1; Chiu, Alexander G.1; Kennedy, David. American Journal of Rhinology, Volume 22, Number 2, March/April 2008 , pp.170-174(5)

Complications from Sinusitis

  • Clinical Consensus Statement: Appropriate Use of Computed Tomography for Paranasal Sinus Disease , Gavin Setzen, MD, Berrylin J. Ferguson, MD, Joseph K. Han, MD, John S. Rhee, MD, MPH, Rebecca S. Cornelius, MD5, Stuart J. Froum, DDS, Grant S. Gillman, MD, Steven M. Houser, MD, Paul R. Krakovitz, MD, Ashkan Monfared, MD, James N. Palmer, MD, Kristina W. Rosbe, MD, Michael Setzen, MD, and Milesh M. Patel, MS. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery(2012), 808-816. September 17, 2012.

Xoran MiniCAT and Stryker TGS: Streamlined Workflow

Xoran xCAT IQ Affordability and Cost Savings (CC: 60268)

  • Indeck, M.; Peterson, S.; Smith, J.; Brotman, S. Risk, cost, and benefit of transporting ICU patients for special studies. The Journal of Trauma. 1988 Jul;28(7):1020-5.
  • Macario, A. What does one minute of operating room time cost?. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2010; 22, 233-236.
  • Masaryk, T.; Kolonick, R.; Painter, T.; Weinreb, D. The economic and clinical benefits of portable head/neck CT imaging in the intensive care unit. Radiology Management, Mar-Apr 2008;30(2):50-4.

Neurocritical Care

  • Neurocritical Care References
  • Ott, L.; Hoffman, L.; and Hravnak, M. Intrahospital Transport to the Radiology Department: Risk for Adverse Events, Nursing Surveillance, Utilization of a MET and Practice Implications. J Radiol Nurs. 2011 Jun; 30(2): 49–52.
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